Friday, January 20, 2006


Semi-Distance Teaching in Mathematics 1to Nurse Students at Naresuan University
Bunpot Suwannaprasert*, Rurgdee Jintanasonti*, Kantima Kamrod*, Nongnut Oba** *Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, **Faculty of Nursing, Naresuan University, Muang, Phitsanulok, 65000 THAILAND
It's obvious that the number of the first year students of Naresuan University has been increasing. Semi-distance teaching model, therefore, was set to handle a huge class of all fundamental courses at the university since1998. The purpose of the present study was to compare means on achievement test of Mathematics 1 between the group of nurse students who receiving instruction in the broadcast classroom and the group of those who receiving instruction in the television classroom at Naresuan University. Results have indicated that among 6 achievement tests of midterm and final examinations, one mean achievement test in the midterm examination and one mean achievement test in the final examination were not significantly different while other means on the remaining achievement tests were significantly different at .05 level.
Keywords: mathematics, multimedia, distance-teaching

The Increasing of PV Module Powerby Fin Installation
Somchai Suvarawan Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
The factors that affect the characteristic of solar cell are solar intensity and cell temperature. Getting higher of cell temperature would drop electric power of solar cell (the decreased voltage is more than increased current rate). So it's be found that solar cell with higher temperature will show the lower electric power. From the field-work performance, the cell temperature would be 80oC, which is quite high. This reveals the cause of the module's power and lifetime decreasing. The study is focused on increasing of PV module power by fin installation, using the monocrystalline solar cell of ARCO Solar company, model M75/S47 with area 33 x 120 cm2. At the back of cell was installed by T-aluminium fin which its thickness is 1 mm. and heat transfer area is 0.587 m2. The electrical qualification of PV module was tested in the short term to making the mathematical model and studying the thermal property of PV module with fin (1 module) and without fin (2 modules). The results of both modules were compared by putting the solar intensity and cell temperature in the mathematical model to getting the maximum power of PV module. Results of this research suggested that the temperature of PV module without fin is 1.17 time of PV module with fin. The maximum power of PV module with fin is 1.02 time of PV module without fin. Considering the average values, the temperature of PV module with fin is lower than PV module without fin about 8.2oC, the heat transfer of fin is about 12.65 W, and the maximum power of PV module with fin is more than PV module without fin about 0.48 W. The results showed the power of PV module with fin would getting higher, and such fin can be used for power increasing to installed PV module. Keywords : Solar cell / Mathematical model / Maximum power / fin

Impact of Extracted Substance from Neem Seed on Hatchingrate and Survival of Tilapia Fry
Arkarapon Wongkumhang, Sumalee Suttipradit,Virat Jewyeam, *Department of Natural Resources andEnvironmental Science, **Department of Agricultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environmental Science,Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 65000, Thailand. ***Department of Fishery, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 42000, Thailand
At the present, many agricultural govemmental sectors have recommended and urged farmers to use plant extracted substances to control pests in replacement of synthetic chemicals. As the formers substances are less hazardous to human beings and less impact on environment than the synthetic ones. However, information of the plant extracted substances particularly crude neem (Azadirachta incica) seed extracted substances on aqua-ecology and environment is rather limited. Therefore, it is essential to find out whether these natural pesticides would be phytotoxic to hatching rate and survival of Tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) variety Jitladda No.3 ; this fish is reported to be tolerant to environmental constraints. The results obtained from the studies under controlled laboratory conditions showed large effects of the crude neem seed extracted substances on hatching rates, hatched fry and fry survivals. The hatching rates were 93.3, 55.0, 23.3 and 7.5% at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/L, respectively, at the tested period of 374 hours. The fries obtained from the hatching were then raised for a period of 14 days in the absence of the extracted substances. It was found that the survivals of the fries were markedly decreased with increasing extracted substance concentrations. No survival fry was observed at 7.5 mg/L. only 6.5 and 2.5 % of the survivals were found at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/L. Interestingly, the eggs hatched in the present of the extracted substances were abnormal fries i.e. banded backbone. LC50 levels of the substaces for the fries at the ege of 2 days and 4 weeks old were also investigated. The results showed a variation of tolerance between ages of the fries and duration tested. The LC50 for the 2 days-fry were 23.0, 20.0, 12.0 and 8.0 mg/L at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours respectively, while the LC50 for the 4 weeks-fry with corresponding with the above times were 30.0, 26.0, 22.0 and 19.0 mg/L. The impacts of substance extracted from plants must be carefully studies before they are recommended to be used as they might have impact on other useful living organisms and environment.

Yield and Quality of Rice Seed Damaged by Rice Bug
Wilai Palawisut, Duangorn Ariyapruek and Pornsuree KanjanaTERC, Phitsanulok Rice Research Center, Wang Thong District, Phitsanulok, 65130, Thailand
Rice bugs damaged yields and quality of rice seed in seed production. The loss was up to timings of attack and numbers of rice bug. The research objective was to find out the yield and quality losses caused by the factors mentioned. The experiment was conducted at Phitsanulok Rice Research Center in 1997-1998. Experimental design was (2x5) + 1 factorial in RCB , the first factor were timing : 3 - 10 and 10 - 17 days after flowering (DAF) and the second factor were numbers of rice bug : 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 rice bugs/m2 , compared with control (none rice bug). The results showed that the yield at 3 - 10 DAF decreased 22% , when at 10 - 17 DAF decreased 16%. The decreasing of yield losses (11--27%) depended on increasing of numbers of rice bug (4 - 64 rice bug/m2). While the seed that were attacked by 64 rice bugs/m2 in 3-10 DAF had decreasing in germination and vigor. Keywords: Rice Bug, Yield , Rice Seed Quality

Anti-cholinesterase Activity of Stephania
Kornkanok Ingkaninan, Thitaree Yuyaem, Woravit ThongnoiDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor has been used as a drug for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In order to search for new AChE inhibitors, the methanol extract from Stephania venosa Spreng. was studied for its inhibitory effect on AChE. Two techniques were used for the determination of the inhibitory activity. By the microplate assay using Ellman's colorimetric method, the extract at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml inhibited more than 90% of enzyme activity. The extract was further analyzed by means of thin layer chromatography combining with bioassay for AChE inhibitors. The results showed that there were more than one inhibitors in the extract which were not galanthamine and physostigmine, the known inhibitors. This extract is, therefore, a potential source of new AChE inhibitors. Keywords: acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Alzheimer's disease, anti-cholinesterase, Stephania venosa, Menispermaceae

The Formulation of Buccaladhesive Antiinflammatory Gel Prepared from the Extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau
Soravoot Rujivipat, Nisit Pisutthanan*Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, **Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
The extraction of Phaya-Yor leaves (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau) in glycerin has been proposed for the treatment of ulcerative and anti-inflammatory buccal diseases by topical application. This dosage form gave high spreading property but gave the adhesive property for a short period of time. The purposes of this study were to formulate Phaya-Yor adhesive oral mucosal gel which having long retention time of attachment at the buccae and to evaluate adhesive property of the formulations by in vitro technique. The extraction of Phaya-Yor was performed by maceration with ethanol 50% v/v. The alcoholic extract was then formulated into gel containing 5% w/w of the extract. Mucoadhesive polymer was employed into gel as the carrier. Finally, the mucoadhesion of prepared gels were tested by using pig's intestine as a model. The results showed that the preparation with Carbopol 940 dispersed in sorbitol provided the best adhesiveness on the pig's intestine. The adhesive property of prepared gels were better than the glycerin solution and Carbopol 940 was appeared to be the best performing mucoadhesive gel in comparison to all other tested polymers. Key words: Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Mucoadhesive gel, Carbopol 940

Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Indomethacin Matrix Tablets Prepared with Acrylate Polymers
Anothai Tungsamranjit, Atawit Somsiri, Srisakul Sungthongjeen and Sakchai Wittaya-AreekulDepatment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Naresuan University Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of formulations on drug release. Formulations of acrylate matrix tablet were prepared by direct compression using indomethacin as a model drug. Two types of acrylate polymer, Eudragit RL and Eudragit RS, were compared with regards to their drug release. The effect of drug to polymer ratio on drug release from matrix tablet was also examined. The results from this study showed that the release of indomethacin from Eudragit RL matrix tablet was faster than that prepared from Eudragit RS. Increasing polymer concentration in the formulation resulted in decreasing drug release. For experiments using mixed polymer of Eudragit RL and Eudragit RS, it was also found that higher Eudragit RS content led to slower drug release. The use of hydrophobic glidant and lubricant, i.e. zinc stearate and talcum resulted in slower release of the drug than that without these excipients. In conclusion, a mixed polymer between two kinds of Eudragits with a ratio of drug : Eudragit RL : Eudragit RS of 2:1:1 can control the release of drug up to 24 hours with more than 95% of drug released from matrix tablet.Keywoard: acrylate polymers,matrix tablets,sustained release.

Modification of Indomethacin Crystalline Solids for Controlled-Release Systems
Sakchai Wittaya-areekul and Anothai Tangsumranjit Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
This investigation focuses on development of a new concept to modify the release rate from inert matrix tablet of a fixed formulation by changing only the degree of crystallization of indomethacin. By slightly modification of indomethacin physical properties, its bioavailability can be improved. The semi-crystalline forms of indomethacin were prepared by spray drying technique. Various initial concentrations prior spray drying and various spray drying temperatures were tested in order to find the condition at which the semi-crystalline solid occurred. The release rates of indomethacin from inert matrix tablets were compared among semi-crystalline and crystalline solids. The results from this investigation indicate that the initial concentration of 5%, 10% and 20%w/w at the spray drying temperature of 150ฐC could not induce polymorphic transformation. While at a constant concentration of 10%w/w and increasing the spray drying temperature up to 180ฐC resulted in the formation of semi-crystalline solid. The release rates of indomethacin from acrylate polymer exhibit a higher release rate from semi-crystalline solid. It was concluded that semi-crystalline solids prepared from spray drying improved release rates. However, spray drying temperature of higher than 180ฐC could cause decomposition of indomethacin. Keywords: Indomethacin, Semi-crystalline solid, Controlled-release.

Development of topical solution formulations of capsaicin: the active ingredient in Capsicum frutescens L.
Soravoot Rujivipat, Sirintorn Pisutthanan, Oranun KerdpinDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, **Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, ***Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Capsaicin, the active ingredient in Capsicum frutescens L., has been proposed for the treatment of some painful conditions such as osteoarthritis, painful diabetic neuropathy and psoriasis. The objective of the present study was to develop topical solution formulations of capsaicin. In this study, capsaicin in the concentration of 0.025% w/w was used. The topical solution formulations were evaluated for their physical properties such as turbidity, viscosity, pH and dispersibility on the skin for five weeks. The results showed that the solution with 0.2% w/w Carbopol 940 as thickening agent gave the suitable viscosity (2,000-2,500 cps.) and pH (6.5-8.0) for topical solution. Effects of additives such as menthol and camphor on the adverse drug reactions were also investigated. In 40 healthy volunteers, the adverse drug reactions of 0.025% capsaicin solution with 1% menthol were compared to placebo, 0.025% capsaicin solution with 1% menthol and 1% camphor and 0.025% capsaicin gel. An aliquot of 0.1 ml of each preparation was applied to 1 squared inch area to the dorsum of the hand, with at least 24 hours interval between application of each preparation. Assessments of burning sensation were performed by using visual analogue scale. Adverse drug reactions reported in this study included burning, erythema and itching. With all 3 preparations of topical capsaicin, all adverse drug reactions were least reported when 0.025% capsaicin solution with 1% menthol was given to the subjects. These results show that a capsaicin topical solution with 0.2% Carbopol 940 as thickening agent and 1% menthol as cooling agent is the most suitable preparation when compared with the other formulations in this study. Keywords: capsaicin topical solution, capsaicin topical gel, visual analogue scale

Pharmacoknietic Alterration of ltraconazole with Concomitant Antacid Administration
Orawan Thangkeattiyanon, Wasan Sran Srichai, Manupat Lohitnavy, Ornrat LohitnaryDepartment of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000, Thailand
Objective: To investigate the effect of antacid suspension on the pharmacokinetic parameters of itraconazole. Methods: A randomized, two-way crossover, open study was conducted in twelve healthy Thai male volunteers. The first two days of the study, six healthy subjects received 30 ml of antacid suspension after each meal and before bedtime. On the third day, a single dose of 200 mg of itraconazole was administered 5 minutes after 30 ml of antacid suspension, followed by 3 doses of antacid suspension (Treatment A). Other six healthy subjects received only a single dose of 200 mg of itraconazole as the control groups (Treatment B). After 1-week washout period, each group of healthy subjects received another treatment. The serum samples were analyzed by a validate HPLC-UV method. Results : The means + SD of time to maximum serum concentration (tmax), maximum serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of itraconazole in the group with and without antacid were 5.1 + 2.7 vs 3.0 + 0.4 h (p < name="a11">Objectives in Teaching and Testing
Bunpot SuwannaprasertDepartment of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Muang, Phitsanulok, 65000 THAILAND
In our concern to improve the instructions, the objectives in teaching and testing for any subject are of prime importance. The purpose of this article is to present the ideas of the objectives in teaching and testing to all subjects. The developments of "Why we use objectives in teaching and testing?" and "How should objectives be stated?" are dressed up. Finally, it is highlighted that instructors should be aware on the objectives that they are useful tools to evaluate instruction of all instructors.
Keywords: Objective, Teaching, Testing


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