Photovoltaic - Diesel Generator Hybrid System at Energy Park
Nipon Ketjoy Department of Physics, Faculty of Science Naresuan University, Muang District, Phitsanulok, Thailand.65000
In the past, the design of Photovoltaic (PV) systems in Thailand is usually not optimized due to the lack of essential information, resulting in the system either over- or under-sized. Such a practice has an adverse effect on the overall efficiency and the investment cost of the system. The objectives of this research are (i) to optimize and install a new PV-diesel generator hybrid system at Energy Park in Naresuan University, Thailand and (ii) to study the long term performance of the system using the PVS simulation program. The PV-diesel generator hybrid system consists of PV modules, diesel generator, batteries, grid connected inverter and bi-directional inverter. Results from simulation show that the total energy consumption of system is 2,599 kWh/year. The average energy produced by PV and diesel generator are 8.5 kWh/day and 0.8 kWh/day respectively. The net energy usage from PV is 6.6 kWh/day and the average surplus energy is 0.3 kWh/day. The performance ratio of the system is 65.2% and this result is relatively better than the performance of currently available PV hybrid systems. The accuracy of the simulated results depends on the quality of the input data and can affect the decision to select a suitable system for installation in this region.
Keywords: Photovoltaic, Diesel generator, Grid connected inverter, Bi-directional inverter, Performance ratio
Optimization Tool Path 5-Axis Sculptured Surface Machining
K.Sonthipermpoon * E. Bohez ** S.S. Makhanov *** * Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Naresuan University,Thailand 65000 ** School of Advanced Technology, Asian Institute of Technology,Thailand 65000 *** Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sirindhon International Institute of Technology,Thailand 65000
Innovations in the field of manufacturing system engineering have enhanced the employment of milling machines in various manufacturing processes. However in 5-axis milling the path between two successive cutter location or cutter contact point will be curved due to the simultaneous linear interpolation in rotary and linear machine axes. Instead of correcting this "tool path curvature" error in the post-processor, the cutter location tool path will be generated so that this curved tool path approximates the surface within the required tolerances. The results of this are smoother and more accurate surface quality and a considerable smaller number of cutter location points for the same surface. We present a new algorithm for the optimization of the tool-paths of five-axis machines is based on global approximation of the desired surface by a virtual surface comprising tool trajectories. In order to construct a suitable grid generator, let the global spatial error be defined as the difference between the required surface and the surface generated by non-linear trajectories. The elliptic grid techniques based on the optimization of the following properties, is modified: Smoothness of the grid, adaptively to regions of large milling errors and a particular constraint related to the prescribed tool diameter and scallop height. A numerical solution of the constrained minimization problem is developed employing the iterative algorithm which penalizes large scallop height and maximum difference between the real surface and tool paths surface. The capability of the algorithm to generate tool-paths for surfaces with complex, boundaries is increased by introduction of zigzag-adaptive patterns.
Keyword : Optimization, 5-axis sculptured surface, elliptic grid techniques, non-linear, post-processor
Development of the Microscale Experiment in Chemistry for the University Level
Yutthapong Udnan, Ratana Sananmuang, and Wipharat Chuachuad Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Muang District, Phitsanulok, Thailand,65000
Microscale laboratory activities have several advantages including: (a) time saving, (b) low chemical waste, and also (c) low operation cost. This study was to develop the microscale activities for Principle Chemistry course. Six activities were developed by the researchers. The activities were used with twenty-four students who studied Principle Chemistry at Naresuan University. Assessment instruments included: (a) an achievement test of microscale laboratory, (b) observation checklist of manipulative skill, and (c) attitude survey with open-ended questionnaire. The results of this study showed that achievement scores were ranged from 49.50 to 91.66. The manipulative skill scores were high (mean score 2.60 + 0.24). Students attitudes toward microscale laboratory activities were designate as good (mean score 84.54 + 6.72). The students also indicated that microscale laboratory has several advantages: such as waste reduction, time saving, easy activities, easy understanding, less complicated doing, less tiresome, and also very cheap.
Keywords: Microscale laboratory, Chemistry course, and University level
The Study of Electro-Optic Kerr Effect in Liquid I : Fabrication of Direct High Voltage Pulse Generators for Electro-Optic Kerr Effect in Liquid Studies
Roongthum Suksan Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Naresuan University, Muang, Phitsanulok, Thailand, 65000
Direct high voltage pulse generators is operated via the principle of trigger spark gap. The high voltage switching method is applied instead of the thyratrons and silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs) which have high cost,rareness and voltage limitations. The problems are usually found in such equipment in series such that overvoltage occurs in some SCRs. The direct high voltage pulse generators used in this experiment is the simple device that employs only resistors and capacitors in series. The test shows that the overvoltage problem is excluded and the high voltage signal is of the direct pulse and has controllable amplitude using the changing of resistors or capacitors. Its amplitude, short rise time and long fall time are expected to be compatible with the study of electro-optic Kerr effect in liquid.
Keywords: direct high voltage pulse generators, electro-optic Kerr effect, trigger spark gap,rise time, fall time
Taxonomy of Trees and Shrubs at Khao Wang Khamen,Kanchanaburi Province
Chaichan manerattanarungrot Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Naresuan University, Muang, Phitsanulok, Thailand, 65000
The forest in the west is an area that is still very rich in its natural resources, but it is slowly being destroyed. Several rare and important species of plants and vegetation are disappearing from the forest. The study of a plant taxonomy is an important step in the preservation and conservation of plant species. That is, endangered plant species are collected, preserved, and conserved for future study. The findings of the study can be applied for the study in other fields of sciences. The study, exploration and collection of trees, shrubs and scandents at Khao Wang Khamen, Kanchanaburi Province were made from May 1998 to April 2000. 121 species were collected and classified into 84 genera within 39 families. Among these Caesalpiniaceae has the highest number of species, i.e.11 species in 4 genera. The second and third highest number of species were observed in Lamiaceae (10 species) and Euphorbiaceae (9 species), respectively. Whilst 21 families have 2-7 species in each. However, the least number of species, i.e. one species was found in 15 families. So far 3 endemic species were found in this area. Moreover, according to the available taxonomic literatures, Morinda scabrida Craib tends to be an endemic species to Thailand and 2 of the 121 species are new locality for Kanchanaburi Province. Taxonomic description and keys to genera and species were prepared together with taxonomic literature, ecology, geographical distribution, flowering and fruiting period, uses, colour photographs of each species.The collected specimen were deposited at the Professor Kasin Suvatabandhu Herbarium, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University , Plant Genetics Conservation Project as the Royal Initiation of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Herbarium Kanchanaburi Province.
Keywords : taxonomy / trees / shrubs / khao wang khamen / kanchanaburi
Acetic Acid Production by Anaerobic Thermophillic Clostridium thermoaceticum ATCC39073
Supak Poungbangpho*, Chonnanit Choopayak*, Buran Phansawan*, Tom A. McCaskey** and Hidehiko Kumagai****Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medical Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand, 65000 **Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, College of Agriculture, Auburn University. USA. ***Lab. Applied Molecular Microbiology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Japan
Acetic acid is by far the most important of all carboxylic acid. It is used as an important feedstock for many chemicals and also be used in large amounts in food industry. Clostridium thermoaceticum was chosen for bioconversion of sugar to acetic acid, because it theoretically can convert 100% of glucose to acetic acid. C. thermoaceticum ATCC39073 exhibited the best growth at temperature between 50 and 60 ฐC. Rapid growth within 3 days of culture in formulated thioglycollate broth media (FTB) yielding 2.8 and 2.6 moles of acetic acid per mole of sugar used respectively. The optimum pH for growth of bacterium was between 6 and 8.5. The addition of 80 mM phosphate in FTB increased growth and acetic acid production. C. thermoaceticum ATCC39073 was able to grow and tolerate acetic acid concentration up to 15.0 mg/ml, but better growth was observed at acetic acid concentrations less than 10 mg/ml
Keywords : Clostridium thermoaceticum, Acetic acid, Anaerobic thermophillic bacteria
Help Seeking Behavior and Medication Storage Patterns: A Survey of Three Provinces in Thailand
Pinyupa Plianbangchang Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Naresuan University Phitsanulok, Thailand, 65000
Help seeking behavior and medication storage patterns have long been the topic of interest among researchers. The study of help-seeking behavior reveals essential elements of social behavior whereas medication storage patterns can disclose important information on costs, benefits, and possible harms that occur to the people. Much is still needed to learn about these two phenomena in Thailand. The aims of this study were (1) to understand help seeking behavior and (2) to explore the prevalence and classes of medications stored in the households in three provinces of this country. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey on a convenience sample of households locating outside the municipal areas of Phichit, Phitsanulok, and Petchabun provinces. Five pharmacists who were natives to the areas volunteered to be the interviewers. The data were collected using a semi-structured face-to-face interview instrument. A total of 117 households agreed to participate in this study. The results showed that, for minor illness, most households in this sample reported practicing self-treatment (47, 40.2%). Hospitals were most frequently pointed out for both moderate and severe illness (55, 47.0% and 117, 100.0%, respectively). With regard to drug storage, almost every household (113, 96.6%) stored at least one drug item in their home. The median medication items kept for this sample was three (min-max = 0-19 items). The most frequently found medication class was analgesics and antipyretics, all of which were acetaminophen (90, 79.6%). Drug stores were the most frequently mentioned place that the medications were obtained (34, 30.1%), and the most popular storage place was found to be in plastic bags (29, 25.7%). The majority of informants gave the reason "Just in case for the next episode of illness," to keep the drugs (76, 67.3%). The investigator found differences in help seeking behavior and drug storage pattern among households in different provinces. Further research is warranted in order to determine how to best educate the population on these subjects.
Key words :Help seeking, medication storage, Thailand
Construct Explication and Validity of the Tests
Chailikit Soipetkasem Department of Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 65000, Thailand
Tests can be designed to cover many types of domains. Some tests are designed to measure knowledge or skill domains and some are designed to measure construct domains. Personality tests focus on construct domains. Construct domains cannot be measured directly but indirectly by construct explication. In construct explication, the test developer compiles a list of specific behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes that demonstrate the presence of the construct and specific behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes inconsistent with its presence. The lists are then used to determine the content of the test items. The following topics discuss the process of specifying test content for construct domains and construct validation technique of the tests. Keywords : Tests, Domains, Constructs, Construct Explication, Construct Validation
Energy Conservation: The Balance of Nature and Technology
Suthat Yiemwattana Faculty of Architecture, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand, 65000
Because of the rapid growth of human population, the expansion of built-environment areas and the increase of excessive consumption, energy conservation strategy became significant discussion for today energy conservation and environmental development. There are two basic methods to reduce high-energy consumption in a building. The former is to retrofit a building with energy-saving devices and to reinstall energy-saving materials. The later is to encourage building-users to have energy-saving behaviors. The second approach is accepted as the more sustainable way in conserving energy because it can solve the problem at the grassroots level-the consumption behavior of individuals. This article is aimed to explore idea of how to encourage building users to realize, to understand and to behave in the low-energy consumption ways.
Students' Development to SME
Bunpot Suwannaprasert Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University Phisanulok, Thailand, 65000
It is very important to change the way of teaching to all educational levels for supporting the government policy at present. The SMEs are interested to current government to develop for people in Thailand. Therefore, the ideas to developed students in schools, colleges, and universities are addresses. The conclusions are the way of teaching should concentrate on students' creativity, the budget should reorganize, and the curriculum should concentrate on students' project and research. Keywords: SME, small medium enterprise, students' project and research